للجامعيين فقط- .University Students- وقفات مع اللغة

This section
aims to help students who study
English at universities .
Here, we tap on some expressions and issues
 relevant to the English language

Wonderful Idioms


Linguistics Glossary
A Lesson in Phonetics
Part 1
Single Vowels
Part  2
Part 3
Interactive Phonetic ChartII

Phoneme vs Allophone

اذا أخذنا كلمة وغيرنا فقط حرف مكان حرف وتغير المعنى نتيجة ذلك فان هذا يعني ان كل واحد من الحرفين يسمى phoneme
big كبير
pig خنزير
ما هو الاختلاف بين الكلمتين
حرف الb وحرف الp 
اذاً نقول ان b و p
two distinctive  phonemes
مثال آخر
fan مروحة
van سيارة الفان المغلقة
نفس الشيء كون المعنى تغير
اذا نقول بأن
f و v
two different  phonemes

الان نأتي الى allophones
تغيير بسيط في الحرف
لا يؤثرعلى المعنى
حرف ال p
في كلمتي 
في الكلمة الاولى عند لفظ الحرف p
يخرج معه هواء ونسميه aspirated p
في حين في كلمة stop
حرف ال p جاء في نهاية الكلمة وبالتالي لا يخرجمعه هواء عند اللفظ ونسميه
وكون معنى penو stop
لو لفظنا كلمة penبدون هواء
وكلمةstop بخروج هواء
هل سيتغير معنى الكلمة؟؟
الجواب لا
فعنئذ نقول بأن
aspirated p
non-aspirated p
هما allophones لحرف ال p
في allophones لا يتغير فيها معنى الكلمة
أما في ال phonemes فيتغير فيها معنى الكلمة
Let’s continue
A morpheme is composed by phoneme(s)  in spoken language, and by grapheme  in written language
إذا كنّا نتكلّم وأضفنا صوت للكلمة فهذه الاضافة تسمى phoneme
واذا كنّا نكتب وأضفنا حرف للكلمة فهذا يسمى grapheme
أي phoneme في الحديث أو grapheme في الكتابة يسمى
want =wants
حرف ال s هو phoneme اذا لفظنا كلمة wants
ونفس حرف ال s هو grapheme
اذا كتبنا كلمة wants
لكن حرف ال S  الذي أضفناه  الى كلمة want في اللفظ او في الكتابة يسمى morpheme
وال morpheme  نوعين
free morphem
bound morpheme
النوع الاولfree  morpheme  هو كلمة تعطي معنى فهي مثل كلمة want
لكن حرف s نسميه
bound morpheme
لانه لوحده لا يعطي معنى
مثال آخر
هنا يوجد عندنا
ثلاث morphemes
واحد free
اثنين bound
هل عرفتهم؟؟
طبعا سهلين
break = free
able= bound
لان un  و able
جزء من كلمة ولا تعطي معنى كامل بنفسها
 كن كلمة break تعطي معنى لوحدهافهي free morpheme
كل suffixes اللواحق و prefixes  السوابق التي تضاف الى الاسماء او الصفات او الافعال هي
 bound morphemes
بما في ذلك اضافة d للفعل لصنع الماضي كما في live=lived او اضافة ed ايضا لصنع الماضي كما في
الى اللقاء لشرح ال allomorphs
الان الى شرح ال allomorphs
لو سألناك ما هو جمع كلمة
أما كلمة dog
لاحظ أنه في حالة الجمع أضفنا
 s   أو es
لكن هل انتبهت للفظ؟؟؟؟
cat=cats /s
s الجمع لها ثلاث أشكال من اللفظ وهي
هذه الثلاث هي allmorphs  لحرف ال s  الذي نستخدمه لصنع الجمع

Useful Grammatical Terminology
Tense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time, that indicates when the situation takes place.[1][note 1] In languages which have tense, it is usually indicated by a verb or modal verb, often combined with categories such as aspect, mood, and voice.
The concept of aspect is best illustrated by example. Consider the following sentences: “I eat”, “I am eating”, “I have eaten”, and “I have been eating”. All are to some degree in the present tense, as they describe the present situation, yet each conveys different information or points of view as to how the action pertains to the
present. As such, they differ in aspect
Grammatical mood(also mode) is one of a set of morphologically distinctive forms that are used to signal modality.
Currently identified moods include conditional, imperative, indicative, injunctive, optative, potential, subjunctive, and more. Infinitive is a category apart from all these finite forms, and so are gerunds and participles
The optativemood expresses hopes, wishes or commands and has other uses that may overlap with the subjunctive mood
The subjunctive mood, sometimes called conjunctive mood, has several uses in dependent clauses. Examples include discussing hypothetical or unlikely events, expressing opinions or emotions, or making polite requests
Example: “I suggested that Paul eat an apple
The subjunctive part of the conditional version of “John eats if he is hungry” is:
English: John would eat if he were hungry
In grammar, the voice (also called diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.
For example, in the sentence:
The cat ate the mouse.
the verb “ate” is in the active voice, but in the sentence:
The mouse was eaten by the cat.
the verbal phrase “was eaten” is passive.
The hunter killed the bear.
the verb “killed” is in the active voice, and the doer of the action is the “hunter”. To make this passive:
The bear was killed by the hunter.
the verbal phrase “was killed” is followed by the word “by” and then by the doer “hunter”.
In grammar, the caseof a noun or pronoun is a change in form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence.  For example, a noun may play the role of subject (“I kicked the ball”), of direct object (“John kicked me“), or of possessor (“My ball”). Languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit had ways of altering or inflecting nouns to mark roles which are not specially marked in English, such as the ablative case (“John kicked the ball away from the house“) and the instrumental case (“John kicked the ball with his foot“). In ancient Greek those last three words would be rendered tō podi (τῷ ποδί), with the noun pous (πούς, foot) changing to podi to reflect the fact that John is using his foot as an instrument (any adjective modifying “foot” would also change case to match).  Usually a language is said to “have cases” only if nouns change their form (decline) to reflect their case in this way. Other languages perform the same function in different ways. English, for example, uses prepositions like “of” or “with” in front of a noun to indicate functions which in ancient Greek or Latin would be indicated by changing (declining) the ending of the noun itself.
If a language distinguishes between gender, feminine, masculine, or in some instances neuter, then each noun will belong to one of those genders : in order to correctly decline any noun and any modifier or other type of word affecting that noun, one must identify the gender of the subject. The term grammatical gender is mostly used for Indo-European languages, many of which follow the pattern just described. While Old English (Anglo-Saxon) had grammatical gender, Modern English is normally described as lacking grammatical gender.
Derivation VS Inflection
في البداية يجب أن نفهم الفرق بين
derivation & inflection
inflection  الصرف
بمعنى أخر
Inflection  is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, grammatical mood, grammatical voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.
Derivationis theprocess of addingderivationalmorphemes, whichcreate a new word from existing words, sometimes by simply changing grammaticalcategory (for example, changing anoun to averb).[2
بمعنى أخر إذا لم تتغير طبيعة الكلمة فهذا inflection
مثلا الفعل 
هنا اضفنا s للفعل  فاصبح drives  وحولناه للماضي فأصبح  droveلكنه ظل فعل بمعنى أنه لم يصبح إسماو صفة أو ظرف
وهذا هو inflection
وكذلك اذا حولنا المذكر الى مؤنث مثل prince  أمير  تصبح princessأميرة
كل هذا يقع تحت عنوان
لكن لو قلنا driver هنا اشتققنا الاسم driver من الفعل drive
كذلك لو اشتققنا الظرف slowly من الصفة slow
وكذلك لو اشتققنا الصفة preventive  من الفعل prevent
فهذه كلها تقع تحت عنوان  Deriviation  وليس Inflection
Stem VS Root
A stemmay also be defined as the part of the word that remains unchanged throughout its paradigm. The stem of the paradigm hearty - heartier - (the) heartiest is hearty. It is a free stem, but as it consists of a root morpheme and an affix, it is not simple but derived. Thus, a stem containing one or more affixes is a derived stem. If after deriving the affix the remaining stem is not homonymous to a separate word of the same root, we call it a bound stem. Thus, in the word cordial (proceeding as if from the heart); the adjective-forming suffix can be separated on the analogy with such words as bronchial [bronkial] radial, social. The remaining stem, however cannot form a separate word by itself: it is bound. In cordial-ly and cordial-ity, on the one hand, the stems are free.
Bound stems are especially characteristic of loan words. The point may be illustrated by the following French borrowings: arrogance, charity, courage , coward, distort, involve; notion; legible and tolerable, to give but a few. After the suffixes of these words are taken away the remaining elements are: arrog-; char-; cour-, cow-, tort-, volve-, nat-, leg-, toler-, which don’t ??????? with any semantically related independent words (p. 31 Arnold).

Rootsare main morphemic vehicles of a given idea in a given language at a given stage of its development. A root may be also regarded as the ultimate constituent element which remains after removal of all functional and derivational affixes and don’t admit any further analysis. It i the common element of words within a word – family. Thus heart- is the common root of the following series of words; heart, hearten, dishearten, heartily, heartless, hearty, heartiness, sweetheart, heart-broken, kind-hearted, whole­heartedly, etc. In some of this, as, for example, in hearten, there is only one root; in others the word the root -heart- is combined with some other root, thus forming a compound like sweetheart

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