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Describing Consonant Sounds: Manner of Articulation

Describing Consonant Sounds: Manner of Articulation


Consonant sounds are described by 3 things:
  1. is the sound voiced or voiceless? VOICING
  2. where is the sound constricted? PLACE OF ARTICULATION
  3. how is the airstream constricted? MANNER OF ARTICULATION
Manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, etc. are configured to produce the sound. Consonants are organized into six categories based on the they way air is constricted:
  • Stop = complete closure, resulting in stoppage of the airflow
  • Affricate = closure followed by frication (= stop + fricative)
  • Fricative = narrow opening, air forced through
  • Nasal = air allowed to pass through the nose (generally while blocked in mouth)
  • Liquid = minimal constriction allowing air to pass freely
  • Glide = minimal constriction corresponding to a vowel (thus also called "semi-vowel")
We'll look at each of these next.
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